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World War I: The "Great War"

Discover how World War I all too quickly expanded far beyond the expectations of those involved to become the first "total war."
World War I: The "Great War" is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 190.
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Rated 3 out of 5 by from WW1 viewed through the history of WW2 First, I'd like to say that Prof. Liulivicius has a vast professional knowledge on the topic and that his style of presentation and his voice are pleasant to follow. There is a lot to be learned from this course in regards to the "facts" and the various lectures cover all the important topics. That said, unfortunately, most of the good is diminished by his unhidden bias, in my opinion. This bias can be summed up as follows: The Allies, and especially England, stand for honor, sophistication, diplomacy, and successful propaganda. On the other hand the Central Powers, and especially Germany, stand for atrocities, political blunders, brutality, disastrous propaganda and antisemitism. I was to write a more detailed critique, but then I remembered an English philosopher, who has said what I felt, so much more eloquently than I could ever wish to do: John Stewart Mill. “He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that. His reasons may be good, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if he is equally unable to refute the reasons on the opposite side, if he does not so much as know what they are, he has no ground for preferring either opinion... Nor is it enough that he should hear the opinions of adversaries from his own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations. He must be able to hear them from persons who actually believe them...he must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form.
Date published: 2022-06-03
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Clear Insights into Today’s World Liulevicius has always been a favorite Great Courses Professor because of his thoroughness of research, clarity, and ability to make complex situations understandable without oversimplification. I strongly suggest that you either buy the Guidebook or print out the key and maps from the Guidebook on pages 207 to 210. This small step will keep you oriented to prior historical boundaries and the blizzard of topics. This course is massive. A few examples of why this course is “current”: UNCHANGING HISTORY: 1.) The two main Russian war aims (L12) were an expanded Polish buffer zone against the West and control of ports on the Black Sea. These remain unchanged today as Russian excuses to invade Ukraine. Two German battleships (L11) shelling the Russian port of Odessa (currently in Ukraine) also illustrate the importance of the Black Sea. 3.) Despite academia’s near universal failure to mention Russian persecution of Jews, Liulevicius (L12) takes the pogroms of Galicia head on. 2.) Other Great Courses have prepared us for this course’s comments on treacherous Greek politics (L11) causing the disaster at Salonika - whether they be on Athens/Spartan vacillations or clear back to Agamemnon/ Achilles myths (“Famous Greeks by Fears). One would think that our very intelligent war department would have had less trust, but “WW1” illustrates how war makes strange bedfellows. 3.) L10 on the poorly understood Eastern Front is particularly valuable, as it emphasizes the massive numbers Russia can send to any battle line. L18 is the first of multiple lectures on how central governments have expanded because of WW1. 1.) By the end of the war, Britain was in debt 4.2 billion dollars causing London to lose its banking capital of the world status to New York. Federal entities have the US currently in debt $32 TRILLION - a near 7600% increase. 2.) L19 “special laws gave the government increased power over the economy and political speech”…also well learned. 3.) L3 on Social Darwinist “scientific" racism and L28 on propaganda discuss censorship as important, rumor as propaganda, and "negative stereotypes” (with racial overtones). This sounds akin to some of today's current movements. 4.) L21: “As…women entered (factories) and children experienced…increased independence without supervision, social roles and moralities buckled." 5.) L21 and 22: The modern welfare state is birthed; 6.) L28 notes that to “lower consumption price controls were used.” Note the Federal Reserve’s power over interest rates. 7.) Income tax began in 1913. 8.) To protect the German American communities (L28) during the war “100% Americanism urged dropping the hyphenated identities". We have never done that for "African Americans". FUN / NOTABLE: 1.) L30 notes that the post war Belgian “PAX" beer is still sold today; 2.) L16 made me aware of H.G. Well’s prescient "The War in the Air". 3.) L34 says academicians credit Freud with discovering the human "death instinct” in WW1 – despite the Spartans of Thermopylae having grossly predated him. 4.) I laughed to find the celebrated Sigmund Freud (worthless to we physicians who actually took care of people) present in the “August Madness” crowd along with Adolph Hitler - the association magnified by the fact that “only 1% of Berlin participated”. The jubilant anticipation of violence played out loudly in this "Madness” gathering “of elites, students, and in urban centers”. In the rural areas there were “more sober reactions” in anticipation of the reality to follow. Paradoxically, the media then and now associates “intelligence” with the loud and violent, while sober contemplation of violent change remains an aspect of “flyover country”. STANDOUTS: 1.) Having first listened to this course years ago, I’d forgotten that 66 million gas shells caused 1/6th of all war casualties (L15); 2.) Ho Chi Minh, a leader who beat the US in Vietnam, started (L18) as a forced laborer for France. During the peace settlements (L32) he was one of the non-Western representatives who was (tragically) ignored; 3.) The massive historical neglect of the Armenian Genocide is thoroughly documented including Liulevicius’ records of children thrown into rivers, mass abuse, and the forced conversion of women. The permission given the Turks to “lie under oath for the good of Islam" (“Takeyah") permits this horror to be denied even today. SUMMARY: Liulevicius remains one of the most accurate historical narrators in the Great Courses’ arsenal.
Date published: 2022-05-09
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Very informative and professional. Even though I am a history teacher and retired military and pretty much a military history buff, this presentation added tremendous insight and included a tremendous amount of idealogy and political insight about the conflict. Well thought out course and a great lecturer.
Date published: 2022-03-22
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Revisiting 'All that' Revisiting 'All that' It may seem irrelevant to begin a review of this course, to observe that for this series the familiar green room with the lectern and the window with the brick wall and the ever-green was the setting yet the lectern and the notes seems to have orientated the viewer so the almost impossible task of communicating the necessary academic detachment required to narrate Europe's nemesis was accomplished without drama and histrionics Having watched also this professor's course on Eastern European History, where his style of delivery was quite different in texture, this course was all the more compelling by the more contemplative and ruminating lecture style. I followed this course with avid interest, and that I did was a tribute to the style of delivery of a fraught subject. It was as illuminating, it was gripping, as it import would be, but its cogency was thus augmented . I have generally shunned accounts of war and am immune to any of the rhetoric and the fascination which still seems to prevail about that war or any war. I was grateful therefore that the lecturer adopted the mode of presentation and the choice of contents. Wondrium has produced many 'great courses' which have illuminated European History, Culture and Society, The great feature of this course is the intellectual clarity which American Academia has brought to issues which still bedevil European attitudes in respect of their history. This course contrived to explain and describe the war phenomenon with a chastening lack of sentimentality and explain the rhetoric, its delusions and caricatures and its ultimate absurdity. But despite the clarity of the delivery, the most moving aspect of the course was his empathy and his latent but also potent imaginative sensibility. It came through , especially in the later stages of the course as as he made us grapple with its meaning, or lack of meaning. As well as curiosity I was moved by his objective insight into the ultimate personal tragedy magnified by the statistics of its ultimate poisonous futility. I have followed his other courses where the same intellectual appearance of of objectivity managed never the less to impart a sense of consternation and perplexity by this nadir of the European civilisation which was never quite so cohesive as legends would have it. This course is the best survey of the problem I have encountered in any form. BaruchIII
Date published: 2022-03-20
Rated 1 out of 5 by from Audio is mixed Frequently the audio goes out of sync with the video and remains that way for 30 minutes. Ugh
Date published: 2022-02-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from More than expected Professor Liulevicius thoroughly presents a topic that far too many regard only in light of the common themes of the western front. WWI involved much more, the consequences of which we remain faced with more than a century after the guns mercifully fell silent. The course should be required study for any serious student of international politics, global economics, or factors that contributed to an even larger conflagration in WWII.
Date published: 2022-01-19
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Expansive and Thought-Provoking This course was engrossing and I looked forward to watching the next one or two segments each time I could carve out some time to do so until final completion. I thought that the course covered a great number of "bases" with sufficient detail, but with an eye toward teaching us about the overarching effects of the Great War both as the people involved experienced it and what it means for the present and future. I also appreciated Prof. Liulevicius's attempt at scholarly neutrality throughout and his desire to give us the "building blocks" upon which to form our own conclusions about the Great War and its effects. At the beginning of my embarking on this journey, I had keen interest in the Great War as two of my grandparents fought in it as US soldiers and that it was spoken about often, especially by my maternal grandmother which further piqued my interest. I was not disappointed by this course. While I could never say that any course completely satisfies my interest in the material, I think that I have been given a good grounding by Prof. Liulevicius to continue on and dig deeper into some aspects of this war that he has enlivened in me. A fantastic course!
Date published: 2022-01-11
Rated 4 out of 5 by from The War That Warped the Twentieth Century As Professor Liulevicius notes, George Kennan, famous as the father of US “containment” policy against the Soviet Union, described the First World War as the “seminal catastrophe” of the twentieth century. The war itself and the imperfect peace that followed birthed the Russian Revolution and international Communism, the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, fascism and Nazism, the Second World War, decolonization, and the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict in and around Palestine. Historians’ debates over the war’s causes and the postwar settlement have never ceased. Liulevicius emphasizes four themes. First is the totality of this war, the way it brought nations and empires to coordinate every possible resource to ensure victory—manpower, coal and iron, industrial managers, labor unions, food, the press, and public opinion. Second is the importance of ideology, especially nationalism; governments and pro-war opinion-makers worked hard to convince the public that victory would ensure the nation’s salvation while defeat would bring humiliation or even destruction. Subject nationalities like the Poles hoped the war would free them from non-native rule. The Serbs wanted war to break up Austria-Hungary and allow them to build a greater South Slav state under their rule. The only serious competing force was international socialism, represented by Vladimir Lenin, head of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party. Third is the shock of the new. This war featured the first large-scale use of machine guns (except in the faraway Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05) and submarines, the first air war, including the deliberate bombardment of enemy civilians (in Great Britain), the first tanks, and the first military use of poison gas. The Western Front was also new: a continuous band hundreds of miles long, so thoroughly fortified with barbed wire and trenches and defended so effectively with artillery and machine guns that vast armies on both sides scarcely made any dent in it. Fourth is brutalization. Top commanders unfeelingly fed millions of their men into a pitiless meat grinder, Great Britain and Germany tried to starve each other into submission, Russian and German troops terrorized and murdered civilians in East Prussia and Belgium, the Ottomans murdered up to a million Armenian civilians in cold blood, and some German and Italian veterans developed a love of combat that they carried with them into postwar politics. We think we know what the war was like, but viewers raised with the Western perspective and its emphasis on pointless bloodbaths like Ypres, the Somme and Verdun will find some surprises here. Along with the Western and Eastern Fronts this war had other significant fronts that were every bit as frustrating for the Allies as the other two. They included stupid Italian efforts to break into Austria-Hungary through the Alps, the failed Gallipoli invasion of 1915-16 against Turkey, the nearly useless Salonika Front, where the Allies violated Greek neutrality as outrageously as the Germans violated the Belgian in a vain effort to bring down Bulgaria, and of course the war against the Ottomans in the Near and Middle East, where the British advanced with extreme slowness northward through Palestine and suffered disaster in Iraq. Both sides tried to bring down the other through subversion as well as attack. The Allies sought support from Ottoman Armenians and Arabs, and Austria-Hungary’s Czechs and Slovaks. The British tried unsuccessfully to win over Central European Jews by supporting a “national Jewish home” in Palestine. The Germans tried to set off a global jihad against the British Empire and smuggled arms to Irish rebels; their great success was sending Lenin by train into the failing Russian Empire on the correct assumption that he would take that country out of the war. Both sides wooed the Poles. Furthermore, the war did not simply end in 1918; there were several afterwars: the Russian Civil War, the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-21, the Greek-Turkish War of 1919-22, and the Romanian invasion of Hungary in 1919. Then there was this little piece of cruelty: American organizers of postwar tours of US cemeteries in France for Gold Star mothers required that they be racially segregated. The course has some problems. Liulevicius sometimes hesitates or stumbles and resorts to redundant phrases like the “totality” of total war. Through the first several lectures he coughs at times; was he suffering a cold? More serious are the factual errors. In Lecture 14 he falls into the common historians’ trap of believing the photo purporting to single out and magnify an ecstatic Hitler supposedly present among patriotic demonstrators in front of Munich’s Feldherrnhalle in August 1914; it was a fraud manufactured by Hitler’s favorite photographer after the war. In Lecture 26 he implies wrongly that Rasputin first became influential during the war. In Lecture 35 he overstates the case when he writes off the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch as a “comic farce”; it was no farce and failed to break out of Munich only because the Reichswehr in Bavaria decided to stop it, killing or wounding several Nazis in the process. There is also a funny mistake in Lecture 33, when a map shows Anatolia labeled as Poland. These weaknesses are greatly outweighed by strengths. Liulevicius covers nearly aspect of the war: its political causes, the opening plans, the big battles, the lives of common soldiers in the trenches and civilians at home, the problems of economic management, the wars at sea and in the air, the peace settlements, and memories of the war. I wish he had given more attention to the Eastern Front, which in the US is always underplayed as to both wars, but he rightly points out Eastern Europeans remember the war differently than we do, not as a pointless slaughter but as a great struggle that ended in national liberation. The professor is also frighteningly prescient—in 2006—when he warns in Lecture 30 that a great pandemic like that of 1918-20 might happen again. If you buy this course, you will be pleased with it.
Date published: 2022-01-06
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Overview

From August 1914 to November 1918, an unprecedented catastrophe gripped the world that continues to reverberate into our own time. World War I was touched off by a terrorist act in Bosnia and all too quickly expanded far beyond the expectations of those involved to become the first "total war." It was the first conflict in which entire societies mobilized to wage unrestrained war, investing all their wealth, industries, institutions, and the lives of their citizens to win victory at any price.

About

Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius

To study the deepest impulses in human nature, we see the lure of wealth and conquest, the deep-seated urge for fame and glory, the quest for higher ends, a basic human determination.

INSTITUTION

University of Tennessee

Dr. Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius is Lindsay Young Professor of History and Director of the Center for the Study of War and Society at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. He earned his B.A. from the University of Chicago and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. After receiving his doctorate, Dr. Liulevicius served as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace at Stanford University. Professor Liulevicius has won many awards and honors, including the University of Tennessee's Excellence in Teaching Award and a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship. At the university he teaches courses on modern German history, Western civilization, European diplomatic history, Nazi Germany, World War I, war and culture, 20th-century Europe, nationalism, and utopian thought. Dr. Liulevicius has published numerous articles and two books: War Land on the Eastern Front: Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I and The German Myth of the East, 1800 to the Present.

Professor Liulevicius participated in The Great Courses Professor Chat series. Read the chat to learn more about diplomacy and war

By This Professor

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The Century's Initial Catastrophe

01: The Century's Initial Catastrophe

The opening lecture presents the main themes of the course, beginning with the concept of total war. Other themes include the role of ideology, the meanings ascribed to the war by different sides, and the war's legacy.

33 min
Europe in 1914

02: Europe in 1914

This lecture examines the state of Europe and the world before the onset of the war in 1914. The emergence of the German Empire created strains in the international balance of power, as divided among Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.

32 min
Towards Crisis in Politics and Culture

03: Towards Crisis in Politics and Culture

Even among those who expected war, there were widespread misconceptions about the nature of the conflict to come. In this lecture you explore the prevailing ideas and attitudes in Europe and then turn to the premonitions noted by contemporaries of coming disaster.

34 min
Causes of the War and the July Crisis, 1914

04: Causes of the War and the July Crisis, 1914

This lecture analyzes the immediate events that led to war, from the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary at Sarajevo in June 1914 to the diplomatic chain reactions that followed in the July Crisis.

29 min
The August Madness

05: The August Madness

Hysterical celebration known as the August Madness greeted the outbreak of war between the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, and Russia). You analyze new research that questions how widespread this emotional outburst really was.

30 min
The Failed Gambles - War Plans Break Down

06: The Failed Gambles - War Plans Break Down

This lecture follows the unfolding of the German Schlieffen Plan, which envisioned quick victory on two fronts, and the French Plan XVII, which aimed to recover lost French territories. Both were thwarted.

31 min
The Western Front Experience

07: The Western Front Experience

The Western Front soon froze into static trench warfare and horrific slaughter from attempts to break this deadlock. Generals on both sides sought a breakthrough that would allow sweeping offensives and glorious cavalry charges. These never came.

29 min
Life and Death in the Trenches

08: Life and Death in the Trenches

This lecture gives a detailed overview of the trench landscape from the perspective of ordinary soldiers: the elaborate fortifications, the omnipresence of death, and the codes of behavior such as the Christmas fraternizations between the trenches in 1914.

31 min
The Great Battles of Attrition

09: The Great Battles of Attrition

Once the new dynamics of industrial war had been recognized, there followed a series of months-long battles of attrition. You examine the battles of Verdun and Somme in 1916, and in 1917 the French Champagne Offensive and the Third Battle of Ypres, also called Passchendaele.

31 min
The Eastern Front Experience

10: The Eastern Front Experience

This lecture illuminates the unfamiliar clash of empires in the East, beginning with the Russian invasion of German East Prussia and the ominous disasters of the Austro-Hungarian war effort. The Germans achieved victory against the Russians at Tannenberg in 1914 and followed up with the "Great Advance" of 1915 into Russian territory.

32 min
The Southern Fronts

11: The Southern Fronts

Turkish entry into the war expanded its scope. Allied landings in Gallipoli in 1915 were repulsed by Turkish defenders. Italy entered the war on the Allied side but met disaster against Austria-Hungary at the battle of Caporetto.

31 min
War Aims and Occupations

12: War Aims and Occupations

What goals did the Allies and the Central Powers pursue from the outset of the war? How did these goals change? After examining these questions, you turn to the experience of military occupation and how it affected civilian populations.

31 min
Soldiers as Victims

13: Soldiers as Victims

Historians estimate that half of the soldiers mobilized in the war were killed or wounded, and some suggest that nearly half of surviving soldiers experienced psychological traumas. This lecture seeks to convey the immense scale of this carnage.

31 min
Storm Troopers and Future Dictators

14: Storm Troopers and Future Dictators

Attempts to break the immobility of trench warfare produced storm troopers, fearless warriors habituated to the trench landscape to a disturbing degree. Two ordinary soldiers seemed to enjoy the war too much: Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler.

30 min
The Total War of Technology

15: The Total War of Technology

An important element of World War I was the expanding destructive potential of technology. This lecture covers such developments as the machine gun, poison gas, and the submarine, as well as the economic weapon of ersatz materials.

31 min
Air War

16: Air War

While the war in the air was not yet decisive in World War I, it was a frightening portent of what future conflict would hold. This lecture surveys the rapid improvement in early airplanes and the growth of the myth of the fighter ace.

30 min
War at Sea

17: War at Sea

Like the land forces, the opposing navies also reached a stalemate. The Battle of Jutland in May 1916 was the only large-scale British-German naval clash, and it ended indecisively. The naval blockade imposed by the British on Germany was of far greater effect.

31 min
The Global Reach of the War

18: The Global Reach of the War

This lecture surveys fighting in the European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The diplomatic sparring for the sympathies of neutral states is also examined, along with the economic dimension of the global war.

31 min
The War State

19: The War State

Total war put new demands on the state to mobilize populations and economies for victory. For example, Britain broke with earlier liberal traditions to give the government increased power over the economy and political speech.

31 min
Propaganda War

20: Propaganda War

This lecture examines the increasing sophistication of official propaganda. You also study the phenomenon of spontaneous propaganda produced by citizens, which could take the form of rumors, myths, and stereotypes of the enemy.

32 min
Endurance and Stress on the Home Front

21: Endurance and Stress on the Home Front

The home fronts in all the warring countries met privation, shortages, and surveillance with both endurance and signs of growing stress. The British blockade led to severe hunger in Germany, and the employment of women in war industries disrupted social traditions.

31 min
Dissent and Its Limits

22: Dissent and Its Limits

A range of voices spoke out against the conflict as it deepened, including workers, pacifists, and even a decorated British officer, Siegfried Sassoon. At the same time, radical socialists saw in the war an opening for world revolution.

31 min
Remobilization in 1916 - 1917

23: Remobilization in 1916 - 1917

Increasing war-weariness led all the combatant powers to attempt to reinvigorate the war effort. In France and Britain new civilian governments took the lead in this effort, while in Germany the de facto military dictatorship inaugurated a new propaganda campaign.

29 min
Armenian Massacres - Tipping into Genocide

24: Armenian Massacres - Tipping into Genocide

World War I saw the launching of what is considered the first full-scale modern genocide: the 1915 Armenian massacres in Ottoman Turkey, in which between 500,000 and one million men, women, and children of the Armenian minority were killed or died from abuse.

33 min
Strains of War - Socialists and Nationalists

25: Strains of War - Socialists and Nationalists

This lecture explores the growing divisions in wartime societies, which produced revolts such as the 1915 Easter Rising against British rule in Ireland, the French army's mutinies in 1917, and the growing alienation of subject nationalities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

31 min
Russian Revolutions

26: Russian Revolutions

The Russian Empire was the first to break under the pressure of war. In March 1917, the tsarist regime abruptly collapsed. Months later the liberal-led provisional government itself collapsed when Lenin's Bolsheviks seized power and inaugurated a new Communist state.

32 min
America’s Entry into the War

27: America’s Entry into the War

In this lecture you follow the path that led the United States to join the Allied cause against Germany in April 1917. America's entry gave the war a larger ideological character, articulated by President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points.

31 min
America at War - Over There and Over Here

28: America at War - Over There and Over Here

World War I had a profound impact on American society. You explore the sophisticated propaganda campaign launched to rouse the nation to arms, the massive economic mobilization, and the encounter of American doughboys overseas with the "old continent."

30 min
1918 - The German Empire’s Last Gamble

29: 1918 - The German Empire’s Last Gamble

Hoping to win the war before the massed arrival of American troops, the Germans marshaled their reserves for a final offensive in March 1918. They advanced to within artillery range of Paris before being stopped by an Allied counteroffensive.

30 min
The War's End - Emotions of the Armistice

30: The War's End - Emotions of the Armistice

When the guns fell silent on November 11, 1918, many Germans found it difficult to accept that they had lost the war. As a crowning horror, a worldwide pandemic swept the globe: the Spanish Influenza killed an estimated 50 million people.

31 min
Toppled Thrones - The Collapse of Empires

31: Toppled Thrones - The Collapse of Empires

The defeated Central Powers saw their empires and political structures come crashing down. This lecture outlines the startling internal collapse of the Central Powers and the question of what new order would replace the extinct regimes.

30 min
The Versailles Treaty and Paris Settlement

32: The Versailles Treaty and Paris Settlement

The peace settlements ending World War I were beset with contradictions. Should the treaties reconcile enemies or punish the defeated? Were they meant to repair the prewar balance of power or abolish it? This lecture considers the resulting treaties in depth.

32 min
Aftershocks - Reds, Whites, and Nationalists

33: Aftershocks - Reds, Whites, and Nationalists

In the turmoil after the war, intense ideological conflict arose. Partisans of international Communism heralded by Soviet Russia (labeled Reds) battled counterrevolutionary forces (called Whites). New nation-states also collided repeatedly.

32 min
Monuments, Memory, and Myths

34: Monuments, Memory, and Myths

Vigorous debates surrounded the question of memorials to the fallen. This lecture analyzes such monuments as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Also investigated are myths that arose in the wake of the war, including the "Stab in the Back" legend in Germany.

32 min
The Rise of the Mass Dictatorships

35: The Rise of the Mass Dictatorships

World War I showed the power that could be mobilized by states organized for war. This experience provided the model for postwar totalitarian movements, including Fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany, and Communism in the Soviet Union.

31 min
Legacies of the Great War

36: Legacies of the Great War

This concluding lecture confronts the largest and most difficult question: What were the true meaning, legacy, and significance of World War I? You examine the economic, social, and political impact, as well as the individual human consequences of this disaster.

31 min