Understanding the Inventions That Changed the World
Dr. W. Bernard Carlson is a professor in the Department of Engineering and Society at the University of Virginia, where he directs the Engineering Business Program. He earned his A.B. from College of the Holy Cross and his M.A. and Ph.D. in the History and Sociology of Science from the University of Pennsylvania. He then studied business history as the Harvard-Newcomen Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard Business School. Professor Carlson has received numerous awards, including the Sally Hacker Prize from the Society for the History of Technology for his seven-volume work, Technology in World History. He is the author of Innovation as a Social Process: Elihu Thomson and the Rise of General Electric, 1870-1900 and, most recently, Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age. Professor Carlson serves on the board of directors of the National Inventors Hall of Fame and as the executive secretary for the Society for the History of Technology.
01: Great Inventions in Everyday Life
We're surrounded by great inventions that have transformed our daily lives, from the steam engine to the Internet. Begin your exploration of great inventions by considering just how pervasive inventions truly are. Do we notice them in the world around us? Do we know how they work? Who invented them, and why?
02: The Potter's Wheel and Metallurgy
Step back to the Stone Age and look at the craft of pottery and the development of metals. Although we might think of ancient people as "primitive," early humans were remarkably observant about the world around them, which led to several complex inventions.
03: Beer, Wine, and Distilled Spirits
One of the recurring themes in the history of invention is the way technology leads to material abundance. See how the Agricultural Revolution changed life for early humans. Then trace the development of alcoholic beverages from the earliest days of civilization through the Middle Ages and consider the cultural insights alcohol can offer.
04: The Galley, Coins, and the Alphabet
In addition to creating material abundance, technology, whether it's an oxcart or a telecommunications network, facilitates interaction between people. Explore the role of trade in early societies and how ships, coins, and the alphabet shaped the civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean.
05: Crossbows East and West
To study the way people have used technology to secure and maintain political power, journey east to China and examine the role of the crossbow in the Warring States Era. As the world's first machine with interchangeable parts, the crossbow is a marvel of engineering that shaped the political history of China for centuries.
06: Roman Arches-Aqueducts and the Colosseum
We're all familiar with the glory of Roman engineering, from the Romans' system of roads to their impressive monuments. How did these structures work from a technical standpoint? And why build them? Delve into Roman history and explore the way in which technology served state ends.
07: Waterwheels and Clocks
Turn now to two inventions that moved humanity from the ancient to the modern world. The waterwheel was the first major energy source beyond human muscle and animal labor, which freed people to perform more sophisticated tasks. Meanwhile, the development of the mechanical clock redefined our sense of time.
08: Pagodas and Cathedrals
Inventions are more than merely practical things. This lecture shows you the evolution of the pagoda and the cathedral, which grew out of the spiritual practices of East Asia and Europe, respectively, and how religious beliefs can inspire remarkable developments in engineering and architecture.
09: Paper and Printing
Survey the development of writing from the days of clay tablets and parchment through the development of the printing press. You'll learn about the surprising history of movable type, which originated in Asia hundreds of years before the Gutenberg press in Europe. You'll also see how different cultural circumstances shaped the impact of different inventions.
10: Gunpowder, Cannons, and Guns
The story of invention is often the story of cultural contact. Witness the origins of gunpowder in ancient China and trace its movement into Europe. Then, shift your attention to the development of gunpowder weapons and consider how cannons, rifles, and handguns changed the face of warfare as well as the world's political and social structures.
11: Telescopes and Microscopes
You might assume that all inventions arise from science, but this is not always so. As the history of telescopes and microscopes demonstrates, the invention of new technology facilitates scientific advances. In this case, optical technology drove the Scientific Revolution, allowing Galileo and others to establish the scientific method of observation.
12: The Caravel and Celestial Navigation
Discover the story of Prince Henry the Navigator. His promotion of ship design and navigation during the 15th century arguably marked the start of our modern way of deliberately using technology to shape society. Better ships, information about wind and currents, and new navigation techniques brought about remarkable political and economic change in Europe.
13: Unblocking the Power of Coal and Iron
Turn now to the Industrial Revolution, which was marked by economies of speed, scale, and coordination, as well as improvements in transportation. To begin this story, you'll consider how the high thermal output of coal allowed for new uses of iron, which led to bigger, stronger machines that drove the new economy.
14: Steam Engines and Pin Making
Continue your investigation of the Industrial Revolution with a look at how the invention of the steam engine allowed us to produce more goods more efficiently. Then examine the division of labor and Adam Smith's story of pin making to see how the integration of social and technical innovations caused dramatic improvements in production.
15: Canals and Railroads
How do you stimulate the economy and create more wealth? In the 18th and 19th centuries, canals and railroads provided the backbone of the Industrial Revolution. Investigate the engineering challenges of creating nationwide transportation systems, and explore the connection between infrastructure and the economy.
16: Food Preservation
The modern food industry appeared during the Industrial Revolution as advancements in canning and refrigeration allowed for the long-term storage of fruits and vegetables and the preservation of meat. These advancements transformed the American marketplace, redefined the cultural meaning of "home," and laid the groundwork for the range of year-round products in today's grocery stores.
17: Water and Sewer Systems
Chart the history of both water and sewer systems and see how they changed the world in the 19th century. From the Roman aqueducts to the London sewer system to indoor plumbing, a clean water supply has saved more lives than any other technology, a prime example of how inventions truly serve the public good.
18: Batteries and Electric Generators
How do you produce electricity? And once it's produced, how do batteries and generators deliver it? Take a fascinating look at where these fundamental inventions came from and how they work. You'll study the relationship between electricity and magnetism, the difference between direct and alternating currents, and the role of science and experimentation.
19: Cameras, Telephones, and Phonographs
The mid-19th century saw the rise of analog communications, where film and electric currents were used as substitutes for an object or message. Meet the inventors of the first information age-among them, Louis Daguerre, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison-and learn how they made information and knowledge widely available to millions.
20: Electric Light and Power
Electricity profoundly reshaped American culture and set the stage for the major inventions of the 20th century. This lecture introduces you to the history and science of electricity-arc lighting, the incandescent lamp, motors, and direct versus alternating currents. Learn about the inventions of Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla, and the rivalry between their electric companies.
21: Department Stores and Modern Retailing
Shift your attention away from technology and production to the consumption side of the story. The 19th and early 20th centuries gave rise to three new ways to shop: the department store, the mail-order catalog, and chain stores. Examine how these new ways of selling goods shaped American life-and gave rise to some of our most iconic brands.
22: Motion Pictures
The 20th century can be seen as the "mass" century-mass production, mass market, and mass destruction. Add to the list mass entertainment, exemplified by the rise of Hollywood and the film industry. Track the development of motion pictures-and the inventions that made them possible.
23: Surgery and the Operating Room
Pain. Bleeding. Infection. Medicine before the 19th century was not a pleasant affair, especially when it came to surgery. Explore innovations in medicine-the operating room, sterilization procedures, and antibiotics-and discover some of the social challenges to introducing these innovations-including obstruction from the doctors themselves.
24: Steel, Glass, and Plastics
The engineering trends of the 20th century-economy of scale, mechanization, and scientific experimentation-were based on new materials. Dive into the world of steel, glass, and plastics and find out how these materials transformed our daily lives and our expectation of what the world should look like.
25: The Model T
Other than the personal computer, the Model T may be the single most important technology artifact of the 20th century. After surveying the history of automobiles, this lecture introduces you to Henry Ford and tells the story of the Model T-the car that changed the way Americans thought about travel and launched a consumer revolution.
26: Aviation-The "Wright" Time for Flight
The story of aviation has one of the most important lessons in understanding great inventions-that social or political circumstances are as important for an invention's success as the technology itself. Trace the development of aviation from the Wright brothers' flight at Kitty Hawk through the jet age.
27: Radio and Television
The sudden emergence of broadcasting in the 1920s upended existing business arrangements and led to the competition between the broadcast networks that are still with us today. Learn about the technology of radio and television, the challenges broadcasters faced, the origin of radio commercials, and the cultural effects of these new communications technologies.
28: Nuclear Power
Study two of the major inventions of the 20th century, nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Nuclear technology has inspired the utopian dream of cheap, abundant electricity as well as the apocalyptic fear of annihilation. This captivating lecture gives you a look at the inner workings-and risks-of nuclear bombs and reactors.
29: Household Appliances
Drawing on themes of previous lectures-the widespread availability of electric power, the mass production of goods, and consumer distribution channels-this lecture shows you how appliances such as vacuum cleaners and washing machines were invented, how they changed life in American homes, and how they act as symbols for the middle class.
30: Electronics and the Chip
See how the combination of several essential functions-the detection of radio waves, the amplification of weak signals, and the operation of switches-led to all of our electronic gadgets, from radios to computers. Professor Carlson takes you into the fascinating world of vacuum tubes, transistors, and integrated circuits.
31: Satellites and Cell Phones
We all have cell phones, but how many of us know how they actually work? Visit the world of communications satellites, radio towers, and mobile networks. You'll take an in-depth look at how bandwidth, infrastructure, and competition between companies like Motorola and AT&T have allowed for truly global communications.
32: Personal Computing
Embark on a tour of personal computing, beginning with its roots in IBM's business machines in the 1920s and the massive electronic calculators of World War II. Then compare the mainframes of the 1960s with today's PCs and consider the key roles of software programming and graphical user interfaces.
33: Genetic Engineering
This lecture tracks the story of genetics from Darwin and Mendel to Watson and Crick. Then turn to genetic engineering-the direct manipulation of an organism's hereditary information by introducing foreign DNA or synthetic genes. This technology-PCR-has important applications for today's agriculture, medicine, forensics, and more.
34: The Internet
Where did the World Wide Web come from? How does it work? This story begins with the conversion from analog to digital, from communication to information. Go inside the world of file sharing, packet switching, the Defense Department's inter-network, email, and finally, web browsers, search engines, and Internet advertising.
35: Social Media and Democracy
Inventions are not necessarily "finished" until they are put into the hands of consumers, and perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than in the world of social media, where a Tunisian blogger can be as much an "inventor" of Facebook as Mark Zuckerberg. This lecture looks at the evolution of social media and its role in recent political events around the world.
36: Inventions and History
What lessons can we learn about technological creativity from history? How does studying inventions change our understanding of history? As you wrap up your course, reflect on what you've learned about the material dimension of history, consider the nature of progress, and take away some key messages about how we can "use yesterday's technology to solve tomorrow's problems today."