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The Pagan World: Ancient Religions before Christianity

Take a close, behind-the-scenes look at religion and life in the ancient Mediterranean world to see how early pagan religions helped shape the world as we know it today.
The Pagan World: Ancient Religions before Christianity is rated 4.4 out of 5 by 47.
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Rated 5 out of 5 by from Dear Professor of Ancient Religions and Cult Practices Bravo, well done! Very informative and well organized presentations. I wonder how he is able to pronounce the names of thousands of Greek, Roman and Egyptians Gods! In any event, he definitely has a mastery of classic languages. In addition, he makes connections among country, state, and city gods. Professor Mueller also shows the similarities of gods among different cultures. People forget that religion like any other phenomena goes through changes, evolution, adaptation based on the needs and the desires of the societies…This is why I see some criticism by selected reviewers of the Professor who think of religion as absolute especially when it comes to their own religion. For these people, I recommend them to attend their own temple and hear from the clergy what they like to hear. But if you are open minded and would like to hear the facts about pagan religions based on historical evidence, this course is wonderful. It also shows some of the concepts of newer religions are based on older religions..For instance, the union of god and man to produce semi Devine creature. The resurrection of murdered god similar to Jesus, etc. So. If you understand Pagan gods, you better understand the newer religion and why/how they came about. There are many similarities (sacrifice, prayers, rituals) for the purpose of requesting god to protect them from multiple disasters! This was done in communities which formed the basis for bonding, support, union, This is basically the same as newer religions except we have replaced all these gods with only one almighty God! …In this regards, the course was fantastic, enjoyable and a valuable. I highly recommend it!
Date published: 2021-12-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An incredible Journey I have always wanted to know more about religions in the ancient world before Christianity, and this course was the perfect fit. The presenter is clearly an expert, and someone who loves the study of the ancient world. His enthusiasm is evident and his sense of humor is definitely wry. The topics are heavy, but well organized and Prof Mueller does a good job of making them understandable. I ended up skipping around to various lectures at times as some of the topics were a bit too detailed for my purpose, but not beyond learning about. The conclusions he reached and his observations about modern religions were always well documented and couched with caution when it was his opinion. I think this is an excellent course on the topic. I felt like I was back in ancient history course in college, but with a much better professor than i had. professor Mueller has a unique style and once you notice it, you will enjoy his humor.
Date published: 2021-12-09
Rated 2 out of 5 by from Too many names I have bailed on this course after just 4 lectures. The course is an overview of the pagan religions and perhaps I expected too much, but much of what was presented were names and lineages of the gods, with little analysis.
Date published: 2021-12-02
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Fantastic My wife and I just finished the last lecture on the Pagan World and wish there were more lectures. We enjoyed Hans's presentation so much that we ordered his course on Latin. I highly recommend the Pagan World to anyone interested in this subject.
Date published: 2021-11-24
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Awesome The only Great Course that left me laughing out loud on several occasions (even at one point quoting the Doors: "Break on through to the other side". The professor has eccentric and prolific hair that enhances his presence. He has a very dry sense of humor with very clever and fleeting bites. He covers the topics in an excellent fashion but there are several provisos: This is not for the squeamish or overly sensitive or prudish: the behaviors of some pagans are vividly described. He provides very diplomatic references to extant modern religions, but nevertheless adherents to these religions may take some offense. This lecture series is clearly not suitable for some strongly devout members of modern religions as some lectures call into questions their adherence to absolute truth.
Date published: 2021-10-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Enjoyed Immensely! I have love learning about ancient cultures since I was a child. I also love studying about world religions and cults. This course was right up my alley. It focused mainly on the religions and religious practices of Egypt, Greece and Rome, with a bit about Ancient India. The speaker kept my attention. He had a wry sense of humor. I didn't want to miss any of his innuendos. I watched many lectures twice, because I enjoyed them that much.
Date published: 2021-09-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Illuminating Lecture Series As a lifelong student of Religious Studies, it was exciting to hear how much the ancient religions set the foundations for human existence through laws, practices and beliefs. Professor Hans-Friedrich Mueller, Ph.D. provided a light-hearted but accurate presentation offering insight to human desire for divine grace.
Date published: 2021-08-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from GOOD BACKGROUND SCENERY Prof moved things right along, most interesting , especially liked the way he told of the Liked the way the Prof used the various names , places and events as the ancients termed them in their particular language , then gave us the derivitives and translations in English . Really like getting introduced to other languages......Prof likeable , very easy to listen to ..GREAT COURSE !!!
Date published: 2021-08-08
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Overview

In The Pagan World: Ancient Religions before Christianity, you will meet the fascinating, ancient polytheistic peoples of the Mediterranean and beyond, their gods and goddesses, and their public and private worship practices, as you come to better understand the foundational role religion played in their daily lives. Because their religion circumscribed almost all aspects of life both inside and outside the home, it makes a wonderful lens through which to gain a deeper knowledge of their world.

About

Hans-Friedrich Mueller
Hans-Friedrich Mueller

The Latin language offers keys to more than most people can imagine…until they too learn Latin. I have devoted my life to helping others obtain the keys that they need to unlock the intellectual treasures that interest them most.

INSTITUTION

Union College
Dr. Hans-Friedrich Mueller is the Thomas B. Lamont Professor of Ancient and Modern Literature at Union College in Schenectady, New York. He earned his M.A. in Latin from the University of Florida and his Ph.D. in Classical Philology from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Before coming to Union College, he taught at The Florida State University and the University of Florida. Professor Mueller won the American Philological Association's Award for Excellence in the Teaching of Classics at the College Level, as well as two awards for excellence in teaching at The Florida State University. At the University of Florida, he developed a graduate distance-learning program in classics for high school teachers. In addition to writing numerous articles, Professor Mueller is the author of Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus, the editor of an abridged edition of Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and the translator of Andreas Mehl's Roman Historiography: An Introduction to Its Basic Aspects and Development. He is also the author of Caesar: Selections from his Commentarii De Bello Gallico and coauthor of Caesar: A LEGAMUS Transitional Reader.

By This Professor

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The Pagan World: Ancient Religions before Christianity
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The Pagan World: Ancient Religions before Christianity

Trailer

Early Pagan Religion in Mesopotamia

01: Early Pagan Religion in Mesopotamia

Explore the ways in which the ancient peoples of Mesopotamia tried to understand, worship, and cultivate supernatural forces in the world around them. Learn how the Enuma Elish, the great Mesopotamian creation myth, mirrors human concerns we still address today—power struggles, gender issues, family discord—as it explains the origin of the world, its organization, and humanity’s place in it.

35 min
The Rigveda and the Gods of Ancient India

02: The Rigveda and the Gods of Ancient India

While most of the early religions of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome have been supplanted over time, the early religions of India are still thriving today. Explore the ancient Rigveda, one of the four sacred texts of modern Hinduism. An ancient collection of Sanskrit hymns, it is alive with riddles, paradoxes, and as-yet-unsettled doctrines that leave plenty of room for stimulating speculation.

32 min
State Religion in Ancient Egypt

03: State Religion in Ancient Egypt

Explore how the Egyptian Book of the Dead and a pyramid inscription reveal the existence of Atum, the creator god who rose from primordial chaos to create himself and nine additional gods. But what happens to Atum when the cities of Memphis and then Karnak rise to power? Learn how political power and religion were interwoven in ancient Egypt.

30 min
From Myth to Religion: The Olympian Deities

04: From Myth to Religion: The Olympian Deities

While the modern world often thinks of the Greek gods and goddesses as myth, they formed the basis of religion in ancient Greece. Learn about this relationship between myth and religion and explore the fascinating puzzle of Zeus. Could Zeus have been a single god with many “persons,” perhaps somewhat similar to the single god of Christianity which exists in three persons? Or were there many different gods, each known as Zeus?

32 min
Household and Local Gods in Ancient Greece

05: Household and Local Gods in Ancient Greece

The daily life of the average ancient Athenian family wasn’t dominated by the gods who lived on Mt. Olympus, but by the gods who protected their front door and hearth and blessed the marriage bed. Discover the many ways in which these household gods were woven into the fabric of daily life and who was responsible for the household religious activities.

30 min
Feeding the Gods: Sacrificial Religion

06: Feeding the Gods: Sacrificial Religion

From the Mediterranean regions to ancient India, animal sacrifice played a central role in the relationship between people and their gods. Learn about the required elements for a proper honorific, atoning, or sacramental animal sacrifice. Discover the many ways in which the sacrifice benefitted the peoples involved—and what the gods required of the animal.

30 min
Prayers, Vows, Divination, and Omens

07: Prayers, Vows, Divination, and Omens

For these ancient peoples, signs from the gods existed everywhere—from the shape of sacrificial animal organs and the properties of smoke when they were burned, to the sudden appearance of birds in the sky, dreams, and more. Explore the many ways in which the people and their gods communicated with each other, and why no army would move forward to the battlefield without their soothsayers and priests.

27 min
Delphi and Other Greek Sanctuaries

08: Delphi and Other Greek Sanctuaries

Major sanctuaries attracted people from all cities and states and served to unite the Greek world. Explore the fascinating Temple of Apollo at Delphi and the Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus. In addition to the expected altars, you might be surprised to learn about the sporting events, libraries, hospitals, and even racetracks at these significant shrines.

27 min
Cults and Mystery Religions

09: Cults and Mystery Religions

Public worship celebrations—such as the annual Panathenaic festival honoring the goddess Athena—provided a political benefit in unifying citizenry. But in addition, some gods were worshipped in private cults requiring membership and initiation rites. Learn about the benefits of such membership, both in this world and the next, particularly for women.

29 min
Philosophical Critiques of Paganism

10: Philosophical Critiques of Paganism

While most ancient Greeks worshipped, sacrificed, and celebrated as the state preferred, others had their own ideas. Explore the fascinating outlier philosophies of the Pythagoreans, Orphics, Stoics, Epicureans, and more. Most of these small, isolated groups were not a threat to the state’s status quo. But if the state felt threatened, it reacted forcefully, as in the execution of Socrates.

32 min
Greek Funerary Practices and the Afterlife

11: Greek Funerary Practices and the Afterlife

The ancient Greeks considered it a solemn religious duty to prepare the bodies of their dead, burn the bodies, and then bury them with a variety of household or military objects. Even long after burial, people continued to bring offerings to the dead, including food and drink. Explore why these rituals were significant to the state and became a powerful force for conservative values opposed to innovation.

29 min
Egyptian Influences on Ancient Religion

12: Egyptian Influences on Ancient Religion

Egyptian religion had a significant impact on the religions of the Mediterranean world, particularly Greek and Roman. Based on pyramid texts, coffin texts, and spells written on papyri, learn what these ancient peoples believed about the potential for a soul to become immortal, the location of the afterlife in the West, and why the dead needed nourishment from the living.

28 min
Ancient Roman Ancestor Worship

13: Ancient Roman Ancestor Worship

How did the descendants of the shepherds and criminal outcasts who founded Rome on the hills above malaria-infested swampland conquer the entire Mediterranean? According to the Romans themselves, their single greatest strength was their religion. Learn about the cultus deorum and how precise relationships with dead ancestors, as well as the gods, allowed the conservative Roman culture to flourish.

31 min
Gods of the Roman Household

14: Gods of the Roman Household

Roman gods were involved with every aspect of daily life. Explore the great pantheon of gods that influenced everything from doors hinges to meals to sex. Learn how women’s religious activities reflected their societal roles in that patriarchal culture—from the involvement of four goddesses and two gods to oversee the consummation of marriage, to the use of terra-cotta uteruses as votive offerings.

29 min
Gods of the Roman State

15: Gods of the Roman State

Rome was remarkable in antiquity in that this sexist, classist, and slave-owning culture incorporated conquered peoples into the Roman body of citizens. Discover how they also incorporated the gods of the conquered in a practice known as interpretatio Romana. Of course, summoning a deity from an enemy city was a formal process, as you’ll see through the fascinating stories of Juno and others.

31 min
Priests and Ceremonies in the Roman Republic

16: Priests and Ceremonies in the Roman Republic

Whose responsibility was it to care for the plethora of Roman gods and goddesses, maintaining appropriate worship and relationships? Learn what roles the four collegia of priests, the pontiffs, and the Vestal Virgins played in Roman religion. They played a crucial role in maintaining stability by calming the deities and keeping them on the side of Rome. In fact, the state’s survival depended on them.

34 min
Religion, Politics, and War in Rome

17: Religion, Politics, and War in Rome

Is it possible that one of the world’s greatest empires was based in great part on the art and science of birdwatching? Absolutely. The calls of the raven and owl, flight patterns of eagles and vultures, the eating styles of chickens—all were signs from the gods. Explore the college of priests, the Sybilline Oracles, and the detailed rituals of divination required before state officials could take any decisive action.

36 min
Rome’s Reactions to Foreign Religions

18: Rome’s Reactions to Foreign Religions

Rome incorporated many of the gods of its conquered peoples. But it could not tolerate people assembling on their own to worship without state supervision, or sexual activity that could undermine property rights. Examine the Bacchanalia, and see why Rome considered worshippers of Bacchus an existential threat to the state, and why the practice was violently suppressed.

35 min
The Roman Calendar and Sacred Days

19: The Roman Calendar and Sacred Days

The college of pontiffs was responsible for keeping track of all the gods and their holidays; the necessary public festivals and the seasons; as well as the days, weeks, months, and cycles of the Moon. But by historical times, the calendar was completely out of sync. Learn how and why Julius Caesar reorganized the calendar into a version very close to what we use today.

34 min
Julius Caesar: A Turning Point in Roman Religion

20: Julius Caesar: A Turning Point in Roman Religion

Julius Caesar began his public religious career as a teenager, and early in his political career announced that he was descended not only from kings, but from the gods Venus and Mars. Learn how he used his priesthood and political success (based in part on disregard for constitutional conventions) as well as military and financial success (primarily drawn from plunder and the slave trade) to become a dictator and have the Senate declare him a god after his death.

34 min
Emperor Worship in Rome

21: Emperor Worship in Rome

The deification of Julius Caesar represented a turning point in Rome’s religion. The polytheistic, state-sanctioned pantheon made room for new gods: the Caesars. Learn how and why Octavius, Caesar’s adopted son, instituted a monarchy that appeared to be a republic, and how the worship of his family and his personal authority transformed traditional religion.

34 min
Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians

22: Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians

Before Christianity, two major monotheistic religions existed in the ancient Mediterranean area. Explore the similarities and differences between Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and emerging Christianity, and how the empire initially accommodated their teachings and actions. You’ll also learn about the grievances on all sides.

31 min
Popular Religions of Late Antiquity

23: Popular Religions of Late Antiquity

In late antiquity, even after the initial emergence of Christianity, the majority in Rome and Italy held to the traditional religion and ancient gods. Explore the relationships between paganism, Manichaeism, and Isis worship at the time of the rise of Christianity and learn why Rome’s rulers could not accept or tolerate Christianity.

31 min
The End of Paganism in the Roman Empire

24: The End of Paganism in the Roman Empire

Individually, it was relatively easy for people to convert to Christianity because it offered many familiar aspects of traditional religion—life after death, community gatherings, a sacred meal, etc. But at the state level? Explore the many fascinating reasons why, after so many centuries of success with its own state-sponsored religion, the Roman Empire finally adopted Christianity as its official faith.

35 min