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The Evidence for Modern Physics: How We Know What We Know

Reveal the what and why of modern physics. A cutting-edge researcher explains how we know about black holes, gravitational waves, elementary particles, and much more.
The Evidence for Modern Physics: How We Know What We Know is rated 4.7 out of 5 by 63.
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Rated 5 out of 5 by from Updates, Evidence to Theory of Everything SUMMARY The information and presentation, combined with the previous "Theory of Everything" by Dr Lincoln, easily compete for the best I've engaged from TGC and Wondrium. Don Lincoln serves well as a current Stephen Hawking or Carl Sagan "cosmic science communicator", thankfully without political or religious slant. I would suggest that Hawking or Sagan will be more meaningfully understood after delving into Lincoln's material, which has considerably more detail and is more recent. Lincoln adopts the style of Hawking, much of the presentation is presented in the fashion of historic findings and personalities. Lincoln, however, wants to present the experimental methods that confirm the theory, and present the experiments that confirm there is very much to be done. The Guidebook is well done, with links and great Bibliography, and I think should be employed before and after showtime. There is even a Quiz, multiple choice, before the Biblio. I admit I only got 23 of 24, because I incorrectly guessed "Fudge ripple ice cream" to Question 2. I think I was distracted by a nearby charm quark with blue eyes, who was offering nourishment, even though I'm not "Muster Mark". I really wish there were three of her, but the charge total and alternate spins would do me in. NOTES This offering is 2021, featuring experimentally explained adjustments to particle physics and cosmology that have occurred over the past 50 years, but also very recently. Dr Lincoln has also authored another TGC/ Wondrium offering, "The Theory of Everything". The modern atomic element "Standard Model" and the fit into modern physics and chemistry is presented in the first 10 chapters of "..Everything", and after finding this out I watched them before proceeding with this material. This "Evidence..." material is 2020-2021 and is an update with more recent material, while the "..Everything" is 2017 and earlier but a extensive overview of the atomic element "Standard Model" that drives the cosmos. Also, Dr Lincoln has authored a text "Understanding the Universe", dated 2011, which provides expanded exposition (especially history of science, references, and appendix summaries). The caution is that the text publication date is before the Higgs Boson, and discoveries about neutrino scarcity, that the text dwells on. Stephen Hawking's "Theory of Everything" lectures, and the "Brief History of Time", are updated and more detailed by Lincoln's material. CAUTIONS and CONCLUSIONS The "Theory of Everything" that Lincoln presents the "Evidence" for, in scientific parlance, will focus on the smallest (atomic physics), and the largest (cosmology, origin and fate of the universe) together. Chemistry and biology, and much of engineering proper is a different discussion. For those with no STEM background, this offering will be painful. Even for those with a background, who wish an update on current understanding of physical reality, this offering may require serious work, despite updating the best and simplest introduction to the foundations of modern chemistry and physics I've found. Consider that if your training was before 2012, you're dated; and if before 1980, seriously outdated. One must put aside serious time to read the Guidebook, listen, think, search about (especially Wikipedia), and often replay; just as for the better math offerings from Wondrium and TGC. In any case, keep 'em coming, Dr L.
Date published: 2022-05-16
Rated 3 out of 5 by from What else would you call it??? I have just started, and am on the third chapter of the first DVD. So far so good, but I believe it would be very helpful to have running dialog throughout each lesson as the terminology is often very technical and it would help in following the lecture, especially for anyone with hearing difficulties.
Date published: 2022-05-10
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Tour de Force This is the second course by Don Lincoln that I've purchased (the first was "The Theory of Everything"). As much as I enjoyed the first course, this was even better! Very interesting, very thorough, and very understandable, the course covers a lot of ground in physics and cosmology, all geared for those of us whose avocation is physics, but whose math skills were not up to the challenge of advanced classes. Kudos to Dr. Lincoln. I'm greatly looking forward to his next offering!
Date published: 2022-04-27
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Really thorough! I have read and viewed a lot about astrophysics, but this course did an excellent job of tying Relativity and Quantum Mechanics together along with the different proposals for the origin and expanse of the universe. Extremely knowledgeable and qualified presentor.
Date published: 2022-04-25
Rated 5 out of 5 by from two, two, two lectures in one What we know? You probably don't know what we know. So this thing fills you in on that. Then there is the why we know it side following each. That plus the bibliography is more than enough to get you going on your own in your own way on a lot of subjects. Just ignore the lesson rather than lecture and the blank stare in one direction as the camera moves around.
Date published: 2022-04-15
Rated 5 out of 5 by from An excellent addition to the Science repertoire Professor Lincoln has put together a fascinating course that hits an often-underdeveloped aspect of Modern Physics: the evidence behind the science. Lincoln states it best when he summarizes the warrant for the course: essentially, why do you expect us to believe the truly bizarre and counterintuitive claims that physicists make! And he does it by comprehensively assembling the key claims underpinning modern physics -- from the micro to the macro, in an amazing display of scientific breadth; by explaining the theory behind them in simple terms; and most compellingly by demonstrating the experimental and observational basis for them. He does a great job of explaining the essence of how physicists design experiments -- whether in labs or in nature -- aimed at proving, or better, falsifying their hypothesis. All throughout, he puts science on trial -- as he should -- and you almost always emerge as convinced as he is -- firmly but always provisionally. (It is refreshing to see science being treated as provisional and falsifiable. This is: not imposed, not proven by consensus, and not insulted by those who seek to falsify it.) For all of this, I give this course 5 stars. I wished Professor Lincoln did not feel he has to "resort" to deadpan comedy to reach us, but hey, it is his stage.
Date published: 2022-04-08
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Instructive and pleasant Don Lincoln is a great teacher mixing serious stuff with a pinch of humour. I loved it. But I wish he would have gone deeper on some topics that I thought he skipped over too fast for me to understand correctly. Still it’s a very nice way to learn and enjoy at the same time.
Date published: 2022-04-08
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I originally viewed this lecture series online and enjoyed it immensely. Dr. Lincoln has a very easy lecture style that is laced with a bit of humor throughout. He frequently references additional resources for further reading throughout the series. These references are what compelled me to add the course to my digital library. The breadth of material covered is nearly as vast as the universe itself. I have viewed the lecture a couple times, and am working through the reference material now. A truly enjoyable experience; so much so that I just purchased Dr. Lincoln's other series "The Theory of Everything" and can't wait to being viewing that one.
Date published: 2022-03-28
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Taught by Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, this course probes the clues to the most astounding discoveries in modern physics, covering everything from quarks to the accelerating universe. The theories covered include special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, and the Big Bang, along with speculative ideas such as cosmic inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.


Don Lincoln

There are so many clues from physics that are staring at us in the face. They are telling us something profound.


Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)

Don Lincoln is a Senior Scientist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). He is also a Guest Professor of High Energy Physics at the University of Notre Dame. He received his Ph.D. in Experimental Particle Physics from Rice University.

Dr. Lincoln's research has been divided between Fermilab's Tevatron Collider, until its close in 2011, and the CERN Large Hadron Collider, located outside Geneva, Switzerland. The author of more than 1,000 scientific publications, his most noteworthy accomplishments include serving on the teams that discovered the top quark in 1995 and confirmed the Higgs boson in 2012. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

His writing at a popular level includes many articles as well as four books: Understanding the Universe, The Quantum Frontier, The Large Hadron Collider, and Alien Universe. His enthusiasm for science education earned him the 2013 Outreach Prize from the High Energy Physics Division of the European Physical Society.

Dr. Lincoln has given hundreds of lectures on four continents to a broad range of audiences. He is a blogger for the website of the PBS television series NOVA, and he also writes a weekly column for the online periodical Fermilab Today.

By This Professor

The Theory of Everything: The Quest to Explain All Reality
Understanding the Misconceptions of Science
The Evidence for Modern Physics: How We Know What We Know
The Evidence for Modern Physics: How We Know What We Know


Do You Believe In Atoms?

01: Do You Believe In Atoms?

Dr. Lincoln opens the course with the observation that all matter is made of atoms. But how do we know? The atomic hypothesis goes back to antiquity, although that was just an inspired guess. Survey the contributions of later scientists such as John Dalton and Albert Einstein. Discover why atoms are invisible to light microscopes, but not to the scanning transmission electron microscope.

28 min
Peering inside Protons and Neutrons

02: Peering inside Protons and Neutrons

Peer inside atoms to find mostly empty space, along with electrons and a compact nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons. These particles were all discovered indirectly through painstaking but straightforward experiments. Learn how physicists used more complex tools to uncover hundreds of even smaller objects. It took the quark theory to bring simplicity and unity to this seeming chaos.

31 min
Seeing Light as Wave and Particle

03: Seeing Light as Wave and Particle

Probe one of the most baffling mysteries of physics: the wave-particle duality of light. Trace the debate over the nature of light to its apparent solution in 1801, when Thomas Young demonstrated that light is a wave. A century later, Einstein proved that light also behaves as a particle. Astonishingly, further work showed that electrons and other matter also have this Janus-faced identity.

29 min
The Paradox of Quantum Entanglement

04: The Paradox of Quantum Entanglement

Dr. Lincoln boldly confronts the paradox of quantum entanglement, which governs the behavior of particles that share the same quantum state. Discover that the rules of quantum mechanics defy every attempt to explain what seems inexplicable—implying, for example, that a cat could be simultaneously dead and alive in Erwin Schrödinger’s famous thought experiment. Explore other spooky examples.

30 min
How We Know Special Relativity Is Real

05: How We Know Special Relativity Is Real

Learn how Dr. Lincoln routinely conducts experiments that show the bizarre effects of Einstein’s special theory of relativity, which come into play at speeds approaching that of light. Like quantum theory, relativity strains credulity, but clocks really do slow down and length contracts at relativistic speeds; we just don’t notice these effects in our relatively slow-moving lives.

28 min
Why the Speed of Light Is the Speed Limit

06: Why the Speed of Light Is the Speed Limit

How can the speed of light be the same for everyone, regardless of their state of motion? First, investigate how the speed of light is determined. Next, consider the hypothesized medium for light propagation—the aether—which was dealt a fatal blow by the Michelson-Morley experiment in the 1880s. Finally, examine laboratory proof that the speed of light is constant for all observers.

28 min
Discovering Subatomic Particles

07: Discovering Subatomic Particles

Survey the fundamental particles and forces of the Standard Model, which is the prevailing theory of particle physics. Then focus on nonfundamental particles and the tools that discovered them, such as the cloud chamber. Easily built at home, the cloud chamber reveals the products of radioactive decay, including antimatter—which sounds like science fiction but is an authentic feature of reality.

28 min
How Do You Weigh a Quark?

08: How Do You Weigh a Quark?

Learn the secret for measuring the masses and lifetimes of subatomic particles that exist for roughly a trillionth of a trillionth of a second. Using the Higgs boson and top quark as examples, Dr. Lincoln draws on a simplified version of Einstein’s mass-energy equation and Werner Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle to infer detailed information about truly ephemeral entities.

27 min
Capturing the Ghostly Neutrino

09: Capturing the Ghostly Neutrino

Hear the story of the neutrino, the ghostly particle that passes through you at the rate of one quadrillion per second, with no ill effects. Neutrinos are created copiously in nuclear reactions and are fiendishly difficult to detect. Pinning them down took great experimental ingenuity, especially since neutrinos turn out to be quick-change artists, often transforming their identities in flight.

30 min
The Search for the Higgs Boson

10: The Search for the Higgs Boson

As a member of the research team, Dr. Lincoln recounts the discovery of the Higgs boson, one of the major science stories of the past half century. Predicted in 1964, the Higgs particle wasn’t experimentally confirmed until 2012. Trace the path to this triumph, as physicists narrowed down the properties of the elusive particle and utilized powerful particle accelerators in the hunt.

30 min
Are Man-Made Black Holes Dangerous?

11: Are Man-Made Black Holes Dangerous?

Evaluate three alarmist scenarios for a physics experiment gone horribly wrong. Some theorists predict that exotic phenomena such as strangelets, a false vacuum, and miniature black holes could be produced by new particle accelerators, leading to the destruction of Earth and even the universe! The risk, however small, hardly seems worth it. But Dr. Lincoln gives you good reasons to sleep soundly.

29 min
How We Know What Stars Are Made Of

12: How We Know What Stars Are Made Of

Scientists did not know the exact composition of the Moon until astronauts brought back rocks. So how do we know what the unimaginably more distant stars are made of? Get a short course in astrophysics as you explore the secrets of starlight, which reveal stellar temperature and elemental composition to observers on Earth. Then apply the lessons of nuclear physics to the life cycle of stars.

31 min
Forming the Milky Way and Other Galaxies

13: Forming the Milky Way and Other Galaxies

Until 100 years ago, our Milky Way galaxy was thought to comprise the entire universe. Now we think there are roughly a trillion galaxies of various sizes and shapes in the observable universe. Investigate how astronomers reached this conclusion and how they mapped the structure and contents of the Milky Way, discovering a supermassive black hole at its center—among other galactic attractions.

31 min
Finding Planets around Distant Stars

14: Finding Planets around Distant Stars

Planets beyond our solar system weren’t discovered until the 1990s. Since then, thousands have been confirmed around nearby stars, and billions likely populate the Milky Way Galaxy. Planets are so dim compared to the stars they orbit that observers had to come up with clever techniques to infer their presence. Focus on the “wobble” and “shadow” methods, which have been remarkably productive.

28 min
The Awesome Evidence for General Relativity

15: The Awesome Evidence for General Relativity

Dr. Lincoln introduced Einstein’s special theory of relativity in Lesson 5. Now he covers general relativity, which incorporates gravity and predicts the warping of spacetime around massive objects. Study three phenomena that prove general relativity: an anomaly in the orbit of Mercury, the bending of starlight passing near the Sun, and the slowing of clocks in regions of stronger gravity.

29 min
The Hunt for Gravitational Waves

16: The Hunt for Gravitational Waves

General relativity predicts that titanic events such as colliding black holes cause the fabric of spacetime to ripple with gravitational waves. Join the search for these signals produced by rare events that are all but undetectable by the time they reach Earth. The existence of gravitational waves was inferred from observations in the 1970s and finally confirmed by detectors in 2015.

29 min
How We Know the Universe Began with a Bang

17: How We Know the Universe Began with a Bang

The Big Bang is one of the few scientific concepts that has entered popular culture. But where did the idea come from? Trace this gripping detective story to attempts by a young female astronomer in the early 1900s to measure distances to stars. Her success set the stage for others to discover that the universe is expanding, as if from an initial “big bang.” More clues filled in the picture.

31 min
The Case for Cosmic Inflation

18: The Case for Cosmic Inflation

Unlike the well-founded theories you’ve studied so far in this course, turn to one that is as-yet-unproven—but mindboggling in its implications. Cosmic inflation proposes that a period of explosive expansion occurred in the first instants of the Big Bang. This startling idea accounts for two puzzling features of today’s universe: the observed uniformity of matter and the flat geometry of space.

30 min
How We Know Dark Matter Exists

19: How We Know Dark Matter Exists

Dark matter is the conjectured substance that outweighs ordinary matter by five to one. However, we can’t see it, nor can anyone say what it is—at least, not yet. The first clues to the existence of dark matter turned up in observations of stars and galaxies in the 1930s. Since then, the evidence has mounted. Consider alternative explanations and reasons to believe that dark matter is indeed real.

32 min
How We Search for Dark Matter

20: How We Search for Dark Matter

Dig deeper into the quest to understand dark matter. Start by ruling out plausible early explanations, including that dark matter is invisible ordinary matter like cold hydrogen gas or rogue planets. Also rebut some popular exotic theories. Then Dr. Lincoln outlines current experiments to pin down this elusive substance, among them his own work with high-energy particle accelerators.

32 min
How We Know the Universe Is Accelerating

21: How We Know the Universe Is Accelerating

Investigate evidence that the expansion of the universe reversed its gradual slow-down and stepped on the accelerator 5 billion years ago. “Dark energy” is the term given to this mysterious force that is expanding space at an ever-increasing rate. Learn how this remarkable phenomenon was discovered and explore its link to the cosmological constant proposed by Einstein a century ago.

30 min
Measuring the Size and Age of the Universe

22: Measuring the Size and Age of the Universe

Draw on the astonishing facts about the universe you have learned since Lesson 15. Then add observations from recent satellite missions, and reach exact conclusions about the size and age of the universe. One thing you discover is that the diameter of the entire universe is at least 500 times larger than the visible universe. Since we can’t see that far, how do we know? Dr. Lincoln explains.

32 min
What We Know about Quantum Foam

23: What We Know about Quantum Foam

Few claims of physics are as absurd as that empty space is writhing with “virtual” particles—a foam of particles, antiparticles, and photons that appear and disappear with riotous abandon. Learn how Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle gives rise to this phenomenon of getting something from nothing, and discover that it is a crucial consideration for engineers creating microelectronics.

29 min
Are Space and Time Quantized?

24: Are Space and Time Quantized?

Finish the course with a leap into one of the most speculative realms of physics—the quest to understand gravity at the quantum scale. Examine why Einstein’s theory of gravity—general relativity—is incompatible with quantum mechanics. Then consider what a quantized theory of gravity would imply. One thing it means for sure is a future filled with bold theories and big surprises!

33 min